T3 Bioscience - Glossary of Terms & Abbreviations

Term

Bacteria Microscopic single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments, including humans. Sometimes they have positive effects, such as e.g., curdling milk into yoghourt… sometimes they are destructive, causing diseases like Pneumonia or MRSA. Bacteria is a plural; singular would be bacterium.
Bio product(s) Used in T3 Bioscience to describe its natural products, with particular focus on discovery of new antibiotics.
Clinical Phase I-III Describes when a Lead Compound has successfully passed Pre-Clinical Animal Testing and is entering human testing. There are three clinical testing phases in the standard medical process of drug discovery. Clinical Test I, II and III, as well as a clinical test IV after governmental approval of the new drug. From a business perspective, product value starts with successful pre-clinical testing and exponentially grows with each clinical testing phase.
Compound(s) A compound is a substance formed when two or more molecular elements are chemically bonded together. E.g., pure water is a of compounds hydrogen and oxygen.
EPA Abbreviation of the US Environmental Protection Agency. For T3 Bioscience, its agriculture product(s) will require EPA approval in order to be sold in the US market.
Erwinia amylovora The name of a bacterium (Gram-negative) that has a destructive and highly infectious impact on various fruits, predominantly apples and pears, but also quinces, raspberries and others. It creates the fire blight disease that is believed to be indigenous to North America but now has spread to most of the rest of the world. The name comes from the appearance of the disease, as leaves and branches look like being charred by fire.
Fire Blight See "Erwinia Amylovora"; a destructive, highly infectious and widespread disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia Amylovora. Fire blight substantially decimates yield in apples & pears. It does not only affect the fruit, but can destroy the entire tree. T3 Bioscience's product T3Protect successfully fights fire blight (as proven in its field tests).
Gram-negative Gram-negative bacteria have a cell wall composed of a thin layer of a particular substance (called peptidoglycan) and an outer membrane containing Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, which consists lipid and sugar). They are more resistant to antibiotics. They are named after the Danish bacteriologist, J.M.C. Gram and lose the crystal violet stain (and take the color of the red counterstain) in Gram's method of staining. The Gram-negative bacteria include most of the bacteria normally found in the gastrointestinal tract that can be responsible for multiple diseases. Gram devised a method of staining bacteria using a dye called crystal violet. Gram's method helps distinguish between different types of bacteria the Gram staining characteristics of bacteria are denoted as positive or negative, depending on whether the bacteria take up and retain the crystal violet stain or not. Gram positive bacteria are usually more sensitive to antibiotics.
Host Cell is a living cell invaded by or capable of being invaded by an infectious agent as e.g., a bacteria or virus. For example, a cell being host to a virus.
HPLC High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. It is a technique in analytical chemistry used by T3 Bioscience within its Discovery Factory. It is used to separate, identify and quantify each component. T3 Bioscience uses it in its research to separate and purify the natural products (e.g. new antibiotics) produces by microbes such as from antibiotic producing bacteria isolated from natural environment. The purified compounds can be used for preclinical and animal assays.
IDSA Infectious Disease Society of America
Ion a charged molecule or atom. When an atom is attracted to another atom because it has an unequal number of electrons and protons, the atom is called an ion. There are positive and negative atoms.
Lead Compound(s) A lead compound is a "leading" compound. The term is used to describe a small molecule or other agent with pharmacological or biochemical properties which suggest that it may have therapeutic potential and value as a starting point for drug development. From a business perspective, a Lead Compound will indicate a certain $-value and create interest in the market as it proves that it successfully passed initial tests and has, despite continuing risks of failing in animal or human tests, a true chance to develop into a marketable new drug.
Lipopolysaccharide or LPS, is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide is localized in the outer layer of the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is, in noncapsulated strains exposed on the cell surface. They elicit strong immune responses in animals.
Microbe(s) or "microscopic organism", is a living thing that is too small to be seen with the naked eye. The term is very general. It is used to describe many different types of life forms, with very different sizes and characteristics: Bacteria | Fungi | Viruses, Archaea | Protists | Microscopic Animals. The human body is home to microbes from all of these categories.
MIC Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; or ug/ml - is the lowest concentration of a chemical that prevents visible growth of a bacterium. Ideal MIC of a novel bacteria would be below 1 ug/ml. Anything larger (eg, 3-4 ug/ml) would result in a physical pill too large to swallow for a patient.
Molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atoms that are held together in chemical bond. Molecules vary greatly in size and complexity. Some molecules consist of 1 atom (eg, the element helium), some, notably proteins, of hundreds or even of thousands. Molecules are always in motion. Molecules made up of two or more elements are called compounds.
MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It is tougher to treat than most strains of Staphylococcus aureus (see "Staphylococcus aureus") because it is resistant to an increasing number of commonly used antibiotics. MRSA infections range from harmless to life-threatening. MRSA is also colloquially called a "Superbug".
MS Mass Spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass to charge ratio. A mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. T3 Biosciences uses the MS for analyzing molecular and chemical elements of natural products (e.g. antibiotics) produced from the microbes identified from us from the natural environment. It is also used to evaluate the quality and purity of the compounds that we synthesized.
MSU Michigan State University
NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - called NMR; is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. It determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained. It relies on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and can provide detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state and chemical environment of molecules. T3 Bioscience uses NMR to investigate the properties of organic molecules, in order to identify if a bacterium is a novel discovery.
Oxacillin is an antibiotic that belongs into the Penicillin group of drugs. It is used to fight a number of different infections caused by bacteria. In the US it is widely used to treat penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ("Staph"). However, with the introduction and widespread use of oxacillin, antibiotic resistant strains called "oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA)" have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Please also refer to MRSA.
Pathogen A pathogen is anything that causes a disease. It is the first link in a chain that causes an infection. Pathogens include: Bacteria (eg, bacterial meningitis) | virus (eg, hepatitis B) | Fungus (eg, an athlete's foot). Humans are in contact with pathogens daily. Most of the time our body's immune system destroys them before they can cause harm. Humans are considered "exposed" when we have been in contact with a pathogen and "infected" when a pathogen has entered the body and resulted in a disease. Whether an exposure results in an infection depends on three factors: (1) Dose - the amount of organisms that enter our body, (2) virulence - the strength of the entered organism and (3) host resistance - the ability of our immune system to fight the infection.
PROMISA PROprietary Methodology for ISolation of Antibiotic bacteria; a T3 Bioscience term for its proprietary methodology to isolate bacteria from soil with high potential of becoming a novel bacteria. The methodology has been developed by the T3 Bioscience laboratory over a decade and is utilized as part of its Discovery Factory for bio products.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause diseases in plants, animals and humans. P. aeruginosa is a multi-drugaeruginosa resistant pathogen, recognized for its ubiquity, its intrinsically advanced antibiotic resistance mechanisms and its association with serious and life-threatening diseases. It is opportunistic and in all infections produced by P. aeruginosa, treatment is doubly complicated by its organism's resistance profile, which may lead to treatment failure and expose patients to adverse effects from advanced antibiotic drug regimens. This dilemma is a central clinical problem in the field of antimicrobial resistance. P. aeruginosa is colloquially called a "Superbug".
R&D Research and Development
Staphylococcus aureus Also called "Staph", a Gram-positive bacterium and is frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract and on the skin. It is a common cause of skin infections such as abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis and food poisoning. Antibiotic resistant strains of S. aureus such as the Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is an increasing worldwide problem in clinical medicine (see above "MRSA").
Suspension Concentrate Also called "flowable" concentrate. It is a stable suspension of active ingredient(s) in the water. They are dispersions of an insoluble solid into a liquid media intended for dilution in water before use. The liquid media is usually water. This is related to T3 Bioscience's agricultural research. Suspension concentrates have grown in popularity due to benefits such as absence of dust, ease of use and effectiveness when compared to other formulation types. They are solvent free, easy to handle. Key performance characteristics are: pourability, dispersibility, suspensibility of the active ingredient.
TTSS see below "Type III Secretion System".
Type III Secretion System often written Type III secretion system and abbreviated TTSS or T3SS are complex bacterial structures that provide Gram-negative pathogens with a unique virulence mechanism. They enable them to inject with a needle like structure a bacterial effector proteins (a cell that acts in response to a stimulus) directly into the host cell and help the bacteria to infect the host cell. The term was coined in 1993. Many animal and plant associated bacteria possess similar T3SSs and the activity of their T3SSs correlate closely with infection progression and outcome in humans. There are several different T3SSs including those researched by T3 Bioscience, ie, the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the plant pathogen Erwinia Amylovora that causes the fire blight disease. In the past antibiotics were effective against these bacteria, however, by now antibiotic-resistant strains constantly emerge, posing a threat to humanity.
T3Protect T3 Bioscience's commercial product name for fighting the fire blight disease, based on compounds that disable Erwinia Amylovora's T3SS secretion system.
T3SS See above Type III Secretion System.
UWM University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
UWMRF University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Research Foundation
Virulence is the ability of an agent of infection to produce disease. Hence, virulence is the degree of damage caused by a microbe to its host. Ie, their ability to cause disease. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors. "Virulence" derives from "virulent" and can describe either disease severity or a pathogen's infectivity. The ability of bacteria to cause diseases is described in terms of the number of infecting bacteria, the route of entry into the body, the effects of host defense mechanisms, and intrinsic characteristics of the bacteria called virulence factors. Many virulence factors are so called "effector proteins" that are injected into the host cells by special secretion "machines", or rather systems such as the Type III Secretion System (see above).